Kia Forte: Engine Mechanical System

Kia Forte 2019-2020 (BD) Service Manual / Engine Mechanical System

Service data
Specifications

Description
Specifications
Limit
General
Type
In line, DOHC
 
Number of cylinders
4
 
Bore
77 mm (3.0315 in)
 
Stroke
85.44 mm (3.3638 in)
 
Total displacement
1,591 cc (97.09 cu.in)
 
Compression ratio
10.0 : 1
 
Firing order
1 - 3 - 4 - 2
 
Valve timing
Intake valve
Opens
ATDC 10°/BTDC 40°
 
Closes
ABTC 59°/ABDC 9°
 
Exhaust valve
Opens
BBDC 36°/ABDC 4°
 
Closes
ATDC 3°/ATDC 43°
 
Cylinder head
Flatness of gasket surface
Less than 0.05 mm (0.0020 in) for total area
Less than 0.02 mm (0.0008 in) for a section of
100 mm (3.9370 in) X 100 mm (3.9370 in)
 
Camshaft
Cam height
Intake
43.55 mm (1.7145 in)
 
Exhaust
42.60 mm (1.6771 in)
 
Journal outer diameter (Intake, Exhaust)
22.964 - 22.980 mm (0.9041 - 0.9047 in)
 
Camshaft cap oil clearance
0.027 - 0.058 mm (0.0011 - 0.0023 in)
0.1 mm (0.0039 in)
End play
0.10 - 0.20 mm (0.0039 - 0.0079 in)
 
Valve
Valve length
Intake
93.15 mm (3.6673 in)
 
Exhaust
92.60 mm (3.6457 in)
 
Stem outer diameter
Intake
5.465 - 5.480 mm (0.2152 - 0.2157 in)
 
Exhaust
5.458 - 5.470 mm (0.2149 - 0.2154 in)
 
Face angle
45.25° - 45.75°
 
Thickness of valve head (margin)
Intake
1.10 mm (0.0433 in)
0.8mm (0.0315in)
Exhaust
1.26 mm (0.0496 in)
1.0 mm (0.0394 in)
Valve stem to valve guide clearance
Intake
0.020 - 0.047 mm (0.0008 - 0.0019 in)
0.10 mm (0.0039 in)
Exhaust
0.030 - 0.054 mm (0.0012 - 0.0021 in)
0.15 mm (0.0059 in)
Valve guide
Length
Intake
40.3 - 40.7 mm (1.5866 - 1.6024 in)
 
Exhaust
40.3 - 40.7 mm (1.5866 - 1.6024 in)
 
Valve spring
Free length
45.1 mm (1.7756 in)
 
Out of squareness
Less than 1.5°
 
Cylinder block
Cylinder bore
77.00 - 77.03 mm (3.0315 - 3.0327 in)
 
Flatness of gasket surface
Less than 0.05 mm (0.0020 in) for total area
Less than 0.02 mm (0.0008 in) for a section of
100 mm (3.9370 in) X 100 mm (3.9370 in)
 
Piston
Piston outer diameter
76.97 - 77.00 mm (3.0303 - 3.0315 in)
 
Piston to cylinder clearance
0.020 - 0.040 mm (0.0008 - 0.0016 in)
 
Ring groove width
No. 1 ring groove
1.23 - 1.25 mm (0.0484 - 0.0492 in)
1.26 mm (0.0496 in)
No. 2 ring groove
1.53 - 1.55 mm (0.0602 - 0.0610 in)
1.26 mm (0.0496 in)
Oil ring groove
2.01 - 2.03 mm (0.0791 - 0.0799 in)
2.05 mm (0.0807 in)
Piston ring
Side clearance
No.1 ring
0.04 - 0.08 mm (0.0016 - 0.0031 in)
0.1 mm (0.0039 in)
No.2 ring
0.04 - 0.08 mm (0.0016 - 0.0031 in)
0.1 mm (0.0039 in)
Oil ring
0.02 - 0.06 mm (0.0008 - 0.0024 in)
0.2 mm (0.0079 in)
End gap
No. 1 ring
0.14 - 0.24 mm (0.0055 - 0.0094 in)
0.30 mm (0.0118 in)
No. 2 ring
0.30 - 0.45 mm (0.0118 - 0.0177 in)
0.50 mm (0.0197 in)
Oil ring
0.20 - 0.40 mm (0.0079 - 0.0157 in)
0.80 mm (0.0315 in)
Piston pin
Piston pin outer diameter
19.997 - 20.000 mm (0.7872 - 0.7874 in)
 
Piston pin hole inner diameter
20.004 - 20.009 mm (0.7875 - 0.7878 in)
 
Piston pin hole clearance
0.004 - 0.012 mm (0.0001 - 0.0005 in)
 
Connecting rod small end hole inner diameter
20.005 - 20.011 mm (0.7876 - 0.7878 in)
 
Connecting rod
Connecting rod big end inner diameter
45.000 - 45.018 mm (1.7717 - 1.7724 in)
 
Connecting rod bearing oil clearance
0.030 - 0.050 mm (0.0012 - 0.0020 in)
0.060 mm (0.0024 in)
Side clearance
0.10 - 0.25 mm (0.0039 - 0.0098 in)
0.35 mm (0.0138 in)
Crankshaft
Main bearing oil clearance
No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
0.020 - 0.041 mm (0.0009 - 0.0016 in)
0.05 mm (0.0020 in)
End play
0.05 - 0.25 mm (0.0020 - 0.0098 in)
0.3 mm (0.0118 in)
Cooling system
Cooling method
Forced circulation with cooling fan
 
Coolant quantity
Approx.6.5 L (1.72 U.S.gal., 6.87 U.S.qt., 5.72 lmp.qt.)
 
Thermostat
Type
Wax pellet type
 
Opening temperature
82 ± 1.5°C (179.6 ± 2.7°F)
 
Full opening temperature
95°C (203°F)
 
Radiator cap
Main valve opening pressure
93.16 - 122.58kpa
(0.95 - 1.25kgf/cm², 13.51 - 17.78psi)
 
Vacuum valve opening pressure
MAX. 6.86 kpa(0.07kgf/cm², 1.00 psi)
 
Water temperature sensor
Type
Thermister type
 
Resistance
20°C (68°F)
2.45±0.14 kΩ
 
80°C (176°F)
0.3222 kΩ
 

Tightening torque
Tightening Torque

Item
Quantity
N·m
kgf·m
lb·ft
Ib·in
Engine mounting

Engine mounting bracket to body fixing bolt
3
49.0 - 36.7
5.0 - 6.5
36.2 - 47.0

Engine mounting support bracket to engine mounting insulator fixing nut
1
88.3 - 107.9
9.0 - 11.0
65.1 - 79.6

Engine mounting support bracket to engine support bracket fixing bolt
1
58.8 - 73.5
6.0 - 7.5
43.4 - 54.2

Engine mounting support bracket to engine support bracket fixing nut
2
58.8 - 73.5
6.0 - 7.5
43.4 - 54.2

Transaxle mounting bracket to body fixing bolt
3
49.0 - 63.7
5.0 - 6.5
36.2 - 47.0

Transaxle mounting insulator to transaxle mounting support bracket fixing bolt
2
98.0 - 117.7
10.0 - 12.5
72.3 - 86.8

Roll rod bracket to sub frame fixing bolt
2
49.0 - 63.7
5.0 - 6.5
36.2 - 47.0

Roll rod insulator to roll rod mounting support bracket fixing nut
1
107.9 - 127.5
11.0 - 13.0
79.6 - 94.0

Timing system

Timing chain and oil pump assembly cover bolt (M6×20)
10
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Timing chain and oil pump assembly cover bolt (M6×38)
2
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Timing chain and oil pump assembly cover bolt (M6×70)
1
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Timing chain and oil pump assembly cover bolt (M8×22)
3
18.6 - 23.5
1.9 - 2.4
13.7 - 17.4

Idler pulley assemlby bolt
1
42.2 - 53.9
4.3 - 5.5
31.1 - 39.8

Timing chain tensioner arm bolt
1
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Timing chain guide bolt
2
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Crankshaft pulley bolt
1
[46.1 - 51.9] + [38° - 42°]
[4.7 - 5.3] + [38° - 42°]
[34.0 - 38.3] + [38° - 42°]

Engine support bracket bolt
4
29.4 - 41.1
3.0 - 4.2
21.6 - 30.3

Timing chain tensioner bolt
2
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Cylinder head

Ignition coil bolt
4
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Cylinder head cover bolt
19
[3.9 - 5.9] + [7.8 - 9.8]
[0.4 - 0.6] + [0.8 - 1.0]
[2.9 - 4.3] + [5.8 - 7.2]
[34.5 - 52.2] + [69.0 - 86.7]
Camshaft bearing cap bolt (M6)
18
11.8 - 13.7
1.2 - 1.4
8.7 - 10.1

Camshaft bearing cap bolt (M8)
4
18.6 - 22.6
1.9 - 2.3
13.7 - 16.6

Cylinder head bolt
10
[29.4] + [90°] + [90°]
[3.0] + [90°] + [90°]
[21.7] + [90°] + [90°]

CVVT assembly mounting bolt
2
63.7 - 73.5
6.5 - 7.5
47.0 - 54.2

OCV (Oil control valve) bolt
2
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Exhaust OCV (Oil control valve) adaptor bolt
2
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Cylinder block

Engine support bracket bolt
4
29.4 - 41.2
3.0 - 4.2
21.7 - 30.4

Ladder frame bolt
13
18.6 - 23.5
1.9 - 2.4
13.7 - 17.4

Connecting rod cap bolt
8
[17.7 - 21.6] + [88 - 92°]
[1.8 - 2.2] + [88 - 92°]
[13.0 - 15.9] + [88 - 92°]

Crankshaft main bearing cap bolt
10
[17.7 - 21.6] + [88 - 92°]
[1.8 - 2.2] + [88 - 92°]
[13.0 - 15.9] + [88 - 92°]

External damper flywheel
6
71.6 - 75.5
7.3 - 7.7
52.8 - 55.7

Lubrication system

Oil filter
1
11.8 - 15.7
1.2 - 1.6
8.7 - 11.6

Oil pan bolt
11
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Oil pan drain plug
1
34.3 - 44.1
3.5 - 4.5
25.3 - 32.5

Oil screen nut
2
24.5 - 31.3
2.5 - 3.2
18.0 - 23.1

Oil pressure switch
1
7.8 - 11.8
0.8 - 1.2
5.8 - 8.7

Oil level gauge assembly mounting bolt
1
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Cooling system

Water pump pulley bolt
4
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Water pump bolt
5
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Water temperature control assembly mounting bolt
3
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Water inlet fitting nut
2
18.6 - 23.5
1.9 - 2.4
13.7 - 17.4

Heater pipe mounting bolt (M6)
1
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Heater pipe mounting nut
2
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Heater pipe mounting bolt (M8)
1
18.6 - 23.5
1.9 - 2.4
13.7 - 17.4

Engine coolant temperature sensor (ECTS)
1
29.4 - 39.2
3.0 - 4.0
21.7 - 28.9

Intake and exhaust system

Air intake hose clamp bolt
2
2.9 - 4.9
0.3 - 0.5
2.2 - 3.6
26.0 - 43.4
Air cleaner asembly bolt
3
3.9 - 5.9
0.4 - 0.6
2.8 - 4.3
34.7 - 52.1
Intake manifold nut
2
18.6 - 23.5
1.9 - 2.4
13.7 - 17.4

Turbo manifold module heat protector mounting bolt
3
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Cylinder head cover heat protector mounting bolt
2
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Turbo charger oil drain pipe bolt
2
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Turbo charger oil drain pipe nut
2
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Turbo charger oil feed pipe bolt
2
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Turbo charger oil feed pipe eyebolt
1
11.7 - 17.6
1.2 - 1.8
8.6 - 13.0

Turbo charger pipe & hose bolt
1
9.8 - 11.8
1.0 - 1.2
7.2 - 8.7

Turbo charger water pipe & hose eyebolt
2
26.4 - 32.3
2.7 - 3.3
19.5 - 23.8

Turbo manifold module mounting nut
9
35.3 - 41.1
3.6 - 4.2
26.0 - 30.3

Turbo charger coupler mounting nut
3
35.3 - 41.1
3.6 - 4.2
26.0 - 30.3

Intake pipe stay mounting bolt (M8)
6
18.6 - 23.5
1.9 - 2.4
13.7 - 17.3

Intake pipe stay mounting bolt(M10)
1
29.4 - 34.3
3.0 - 3.5
21.6 - 25.3

Intake pipe mounting bolt
1
29.4 - 34.3
3.0 - 3.5
21.6 - 25.3

Intake pipe mounting nut
2
35.3 - 41.1
3.6 - 4.2
26.0 - 30.3

Intercooler inlet pipe mounting bolt
2
19.6 - 26.4
2.0 - 2.7
14.4 - 19.5

Catalytic convertor mounting nut
2
49.0 - 53.9
5.0 - 5.5
36.1 - 39.7

Muffler monting nut
4
39.2 - 58.8
4.0 - 6.0
28.9 - 43.4


  

Torque - to - yield cylinder head, connecting rod cap and crankshaft main bearing cap bolts must be replaced once removed because the bolts are designed to be permanently elongated beyond the state of elasticity when torqued.

If the bolts are removed and reused, it may cause the bolts to break or fail to maintain clamping force.

Lubricant
Lubricant

Description
Specifications
Limit
Engine oil
Oil quantity
Total
4.6 L - 4.9 L (1.21 - 1.29 U.S.gal., 4.86 - 5.17 U.s.qt., 4.04 - 4.30 lmp.qt)
When replacing a short engine or a block assembly
Oil pan
4.2 L (1.10 U.S.gal., 4.43 U.S.qt., 3.69 lmp.qt.)
 
Drain and refill
4.5 L (1.18 U.S.gal., 4.75 U.S.qt., 3.95 lmp.qt.)
Including oil filter
Oil grade
Recommended
- For Europe : ACEA C2/C3 / 5W-30
- For Middle east, India, Libia, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Sudan, Egypt, Iran etc : ACEA A5/B5 / 5W-40
- For Central & South America : ACEA C2/C3 / 5W-30

Allowed
- API SL or above
- ILSAC GF - 3 or above
- ACEA A3 or above

- For information on SAE viscosity grades based on ambient temperatues, refer to the "Lubrication System".
Usable if the recommended engine oil is not available
Oil pressure (at 1000rpm)
100kPa (1.0kg/cm², 14.5psi) or above
Oil temperature in oil pan : 110±2°C (230± 36°F)

Special service tools
Special Service Tools

Tool Name / Number
Illustration
Description
Crankshaft front oil seal installer
09455-21200

 
Valve stem oil seal installer
09222-2B100

 
Valve spring compressor
A : 09222-3K000
B : 09222-3K100

Used for removing / installing intake or exhaust valve
Crankshaft rear oil seal installer
A: 09231-2B200
B: 09231-H1100

 
Ring gear stopper
A :09231-3N100
B :09231-2B100

Used for keeping ring gear from rotating when removing / installing crankshaft pulley bolt
Oil pan remover
09215-3C000


Oil filter wrench
09263-2E000

Used for removing / installing oil filter
Pressure cap pressure checker
0K253-G5100

Used for checking for pressure cap pressure and a coolant leak

Compression test
Compression Pressure Inspection
  

If the there is lack of power, excessive oil consumption or poor fuel economy, measure the compression pressure.

1.

Make sure the oil in the crankcase is of the correct viscosity and at the correct level and that the battery is correctly charged. Operate the vehicle until the engine is at normal operating temperature. Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position.

2.

Remove the engine cover.

3.

Disconnect the injector extension connector (A) and the ignition coil connectors (B).

4.

Remove the ignition coils (A).

5.

Remove the spark plugs.

Using a 16mm plug wrench, remove the 4 spark plugs.

6.

Check the cylinder compression pressure.

(1)

Insert a compression gauge into the spark plug hole.

(2)

Set the throttle plate in the wide - open position.

(3)

While cranking the engine, measure the compression pressure.

  

Always use a fully charged battery to obtain engine speed of 250 rpm or more.

(4)

Repeat step 1) through 3) for each cylinder.

  

This measurement must be done in as short time as possible.

Compression pressure

Standard : 1225.83 kPa (12.5 kg/cm², 177.79 psi) (200 - 250 rpm)

Minimum : 1078.73 kPa (11.0 kg/cm², 156.46 psi)

Difference between each cylinder :

98 kPa (1.0 kg/cm², 14 psi) or less

(5)

If the cylinder compression in one or more cylinders is low, pour a small amount of engine oil into the cylinder through the spark plug hole and repeat step 1) through 3) for cylinders with low compression.

If adding oil helps the compression, it is likely that the piston rings and/or cylinder bore are worn or damaged.

If pressure stays low, a valve may be sticking or seating is improper, or there may be leakage past the gasket.

7.

Install the spark plugs.

Tightening torque :

14.7 - 24.5 N·m (1.5 - 2.5 kgf·m, 10.8 - 18.0 lb·ft)

8.

Install the ignition coil.

Tightening torque :

9.8 - 11.8 N·m (1.0 - 1.2 kgf·m, 7.2 - 8.7 lb·ft)

9.

Connect the injector extension connector and the ignition coil connectors.

10.

Install the engine cover.

Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting

Symptom
Suspect area
Remedy
Engine misfire with abnormal internal lower engine noises.
Loose or improperly installed engine flywheel.
Repair or replace the flywheel as required.
Worn piston rings.
(Oil consumption may or may not cause the engine to misfire.)
Inspect the cylinder for a loss of compression .
Repair or replace as required.
Worn crankshaft thrust bearings.
Replace the crankshaft and bearings as required.
Engine misfire with abnormal valve train noise.
Stuck valves.
(Carbon buildup on the valve stem can cause the valve not to close properly.)
Repair or replace as required.
Excessive worn or mis-aligned timing chain.
Replace the timing chain and sprocket as required.
Worn camshaft lobes.
Replace the camshaft and MLA.
Engine misfire with coolant consumption.

Faulty cylinder head gasket and/or cracking or other damage to the cylinder head and engine block cooling system.

Coolant consumption may or may not cause the engine to overheat.

Inspect the cylinder head and engine block for damage to the coolant passages and/or a faulty head gasket.

Repair or replace as required.

Engine misfire with excessive oil consumption.
Worn valves, valve guides and/or valve stem oil seals.
Repair or replace as required.
Worn piston rings.
(Oil consumption may or may not cause the engine to misfire)
Inspection the cylinder for a loss of compression.
Repair or replace as required.
Engine noise on start-up, but only lasting a few seconds.
Incorrect oil viscosity.
Drain the oil.
Install the correct viscosity oil.
Worn crankshaft thrust bearing.
Inspect the thrust bearing and crankshaft.
Repair or replace as required.
Upper engine noise, regardless of engine speed.
Low oil pressure.
Repair or replace as required.
Broken valve spring.
Replace the valve spring.
Worn or dirty valve lifters.
Replace the valve lifters.
Stretched or broken timing chain and/or damaged sprocket teeth.
Replace the timing chain and sprockets.
Worn timing chain tensioner, if applicable.
Replace the timing chain tensioner as required.
Worn camshaft lobes.
Inspect the camshaft lobes.
Replace the camshaft and valve lifters as required.
Worn valve guides or valve stems.
Inspect the valves and valve guides, then repair as required.
Stuck valves. (Carbon on the valve stem or valve seat may cause the valve to stay open.)
Inspect the valves and valve guides, then repair as required.
Lower engine noise, regardless of engine speed.
Low oil pressure.
Repair or replace damaged components as required.
Loose or damaged flywheel.
Repair or replace the flywheel.
Damaged oil pan, contacting the oil pump screen.
Inspect the oil pan.
Inspect the oil pump screen.
Repair or replace as required.
Oil pump screen loose, damaged or restricted.
Inspect the oil pump screen.
Repair or replace as required.
Excessive piston-to-cylinder bore clearance.
Inspect the piston and cylinder bore.
Repair as required.
Excessive piston pin-to-bore clearance.
Inspect the piston, piston pin and the connecting rod.
Repair or replace as required.
Excessive connecting rod bearing clearance.
Inspect the following components and repair as required.

The connecting rod bearings.

The connecting rods.

The crankshaft.

The crankshaft journal.

Excessive crankshaft bearing clearance.
Inspect the following components and repair as required.

The crankshaft bearings.

The crankshaft journals.

Incorrect piston, piston pin and connecting rod installation.
Verify the piston pins and connecting rods are installed correctly.
Repair as required.
Engine noise under load.
Low oil pressure.
Repair or replace as required.
Excessive connecting rod bearing clearance.
Inspect the following components and repair as required.

The connecting rod bearings.

The connecting rods.

The crankshaft.

Excessive crankshaft bearing clearance.
Inspect the following components and repair as required.

The crankshaft bearings.

The crankshaft journals.

The cylinder block crankshaft bearing bore.

Engine will not crank. (crankshaft will not rotate)
Hydraulically locked cylinder.

Coolant/antifreeze in cylinder.

Oil in cylinder.

Fuel in cylinder.

Remove spark plugs and check for fluid.
Inspect for broken head gasket.
Inspect for cracked engine block or cylinder head.
Inspect for a sticking fuel injector and/or leaking fuel regulator.
Broken timing chain and/or timing chain gears.
Inspect timing chain and gears.
Repair as required.
Foreign material in cylinder.

Broken valve.

Piston material.

Foreign material.

Inspect cylinder for damaged components and/or foreign materials.
Repair or replace as required.
Seized crankshaft or connecting rod bearings.
Inspect crankshaft and connecting rod bearing.
Repair or replace as required.
Bent or broken connecting rod.
Inspect connecting rods.
Repair or replace as required.
Broken crankshaft.
Inspect crankshaft.
Repair or replace as required.

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