Kia Forte: Engine Control / Fuel System

Kia Forte 2019-2020 (BD) Service Manual / Engine Control / Fuel System

Service data
Service Data
Fuel Delivery System

Items
Specification
Fuel Tank
Capacity
50 L (13.2 U.S.gal., 52.8 U.S.qt., 43.9 Imp.qt.)
Fuel Filter
Type
Paper type
Fuel Pressure
Low Pressure Fuel Line
Over 500 kPa (Over 5.0 bar, Over 5.09 kgf/cm², Over 72.51 psi)
High Pressure Fuel Line
2.0 - 20.0 MPa (20.4 - 203.9 kgf/cm², 290.1 - 2900.7 psi)
Fuel Pump
Type
Electrical, in-tank type
Driven by
Electric motor
High Pressure Fuel Pump
Type
Mechanical type
Driven by
Camshaft

Sensors

Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor (MAPS)

▷ Type: Piezo-resistive pressure sensor type

▷ Specification

Pressure
[kPa (kgf/cm², psi)]
Output Voltage (V)
32.5 (0.33, 4.71)
0.5
284 (2.90, 41.2)
4.5

Intake Air Temperature Sensor (IATS)

▷ Type: Thermistor type

▷ Specification

Temperature
Resistance (kΩ)
°C
°F
-40
-40
40.93 - 48.35
-20
-4
13.89 - 16.03
0
32
5.38 - 6.09
10
50
3.48 - 3.90
20
68
2.31 - 2.57
40
104
1.08 - 1.21
50
122
1.56 - 1.74
60
140
0.54 - 0.62
80
176
0.29 - 0.34

Ambient Temperature Sensor (ATS)

▷ Type: Thermistor type

▷ Specification

Temperature[⁰C(⁰F)]
Resistance(kΩ)
-40(-40)
811.1 - 956.8
-20(-4)
255.6 - 287.7
0(32)
91.5 - 98.8
20(68)
36.6 - 38.0
30(86)
23.8 - 24.7
40(104)
15.7 - 16.6
50(122)
10.6 - 11.3
60(140)
7.2 - 7.9
80(176)
3.6 - 4.0

Boost Pressure Sensor (BPS)

▷ Type: Piezo-resistive pressure sensor type

▷ Specification

Pressure
[kPa (kg/cm² / psi)]
Resistance (kΩ)
32.5 (0.33, 4.71)
0.5
284 (2.90, 41.19)
4.5

Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor (ECTS)

▷ Type: Thermistor type

▷ Specification

Temperature
Resistance (kΩ)
°C
°F
-40
-40
48.14
-20
-4
14.13 - 16.83
0
32
5.79
20
68
2.31 - 2.59
40
104
1.15
60
140
0.59
80
176
0.32

Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) [integrated into ETC module]

▷ Type: Hall IC Non-contact sensor type

▷ Specification

Throttle angle(°)
Output Voltage (V)
TPS1
TPS2
0
0.5
4.5
10
0.96
4.05
20
1.41
3.59
30
1.87
3.14
40
2.32
2.68
50
2.78
2.23
60
3.23
1.77
70
3.69
1.32
80
4.14
0.86
90
4.6
0.41
98
4.65
0.35
C.T (0)
0.5
4.5
W.O.T (86)
4.41
0.59

Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKPS)

▷ Type: Magnetic field sensitive Type

▷ Specification

Item
Specification
Coil Resistance (Ω)
774 - 946 [20°C (68°F)]

Camshaft Position Sensor (CMPS)

▷ Type: Hall effect type

Knock Sensor (KS)

▷ Type: Piezo-electricity type

▷ Specification

Item
Specification
Resistance(MΩ)
4.87

Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) [Bank 1/Sensor 1]

▷ Type: Zirconia (ZrO2) [Linear] Type

▷ Specification

Item
Specification
Heater Resistance (Ω)
2.4 - 4.0 [20°C(68°F)]

Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) [Bank 1/Sensor 2]

▷ Type: Zirconia (ZrO2) [Binary] Type

▷ Specification

A/F Ratio (λ)
Output Voltage(V)
RICH
0.6 - 1.0
LEAN
0 - 0.4

Item
Specification
Heater Resistance (Ω)
Approx. 9.0 [20°C(68°F)]

Rail Pressure Sensor (RPS)

▷ Type: Piezo-electricity type

▷ Specification

Accelerator Position Sensor (APS)

▷ Type: Variable resistor type

▷ Specification

Accelerator
Position
Output Voltage (V)
APS1
APS2
C.T
0.7 - 0.8
0.33 - 0.43
W.O.T
3.98 - 4.22
1.93 - 2.17

Actuators

Injector

▷ Specification

Item
Specification
Coil Resistance (Ω)
1.5 ± 0.075 [20°C(68°F)]

ETC Motor [integrated into ETC Module]

▷ Specification

Item
Specification
Coil Resistance (Ω)
1.38 [20°C(68°F)]

Purge Control Solenoid Valve (PCSV)

▷ Specification

Item
Specification
Coil Resistance (Ω)
18.5 - 22.5 [23°C(73.4°F)]

CVVT Oil Control Valve (OCV)

▷ Specification

Item
Specification
Coil Resistance (Ω)
6.9 - 7.9 [20°C(68°F)]

Fuel Pressure Control Valve (FPCV)

▷ Specification

Item
Specification
Coil Resistance (Ω)
0.5 [20°C(68°F)]

Ignition Coil

▷ Type: Stick type

▷ Specification

Item
Specification
Primary Coil Resistance (Ω)
0.56 ± 10%[20°C(68°F)]
Secendary Coil Resistance (kΩ)
2.0 ± 15%[20°C(68°F)]

RCV Control Solenoid Valve

▷ Specification

Item
Specification
Coil Resistance(Ω)
28.3 - 31.1 [20°C(68°F)]

Electric Waste Gate Actuator (EWGA)

▷ Specification

Item
Specification
Motor
,
Supply Voltage (V)
13.5
Supply Voltage Range (V)
9 - 16
Max. Current (A)
< 8.5
Type
DC Motor
Sensor
Type
Hall-effect, Non-contact
Supply Voltage (V)
4.9 - 5.1
Pin
6

Service Standard

Item
Specification
Ignition Timing (°)
BTDC 2 ± 10
Idle Speed (rpm)
A/C OFF
Neutral, N, P-range
630 ± 100
D-range
630 ± 100
A/C ON
Neutral, N, P-range
630 ± 100
D-range
630 ± 100

Tightening torque
Tightening Torques

Engine Control System

Item
kgf·m
N·m
lb·ft
ECM installation nut
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
ECM bracket installation bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
Manifold absolute pressure sensor installation bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
Intake air temperature sensor installation bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
Boost pressure sensor installation bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor installation
2.0 - 4.0
19.6 - 39.2
14.4 - 28.9
Crankshaft position sensor installation bolt
0.8 - 1.2
7.8 - 11.8
5.8 - 8.7
Camshaft position sensor (Bank 1 / Intake) installation bolt
0.8 - 1.2
7.8 - 11.8
5.8 - 8.7
Camshaft position sensor (Bank 1 / Exhaust) installation bolt
0.8 - 1.2
7.8 - 11.8
5.8 - 8.7
Knock sensor installation bolt
1.9 - 2.5
18.6 - 24.5
13.7 - 18.1
Heated oxygen sensor (Bank 1 / sensor 1) installation
4.0 - 5.0
39.2 - 49.1
28.9 - 36.2
Heated oxygen sensor (Bank 1 / sensor 2) installation
4.0 - 5.0
39.2 - 49.1
28.9 - 36.2
Rail pressure sensor installation
3.0 - 3.5
29.4 - 34.3
21.7 - 25.3
Electronic throttle body installation bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
Purge control solenoid valve bracket installation bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
CVVT oil control valve (Bank 1 / Intake) installation bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
CVVT oil control valve (Bank 1 / Exhaust) installation bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7

Fuel Delivery System

Item
kgf·m
N·m
lb·ft
Fuel tank installation nut
4.0 - 5.5
39.2 - 54.0
28.9 - 39.8
Filler-neck assembly bracket installation bolt
0.9 - 1.0
8.8 - 9.8
6.5 - 7.2
Accelerator pedal module installation nut
1.3 - 1.6
12.8 - 15.6
9.4 - 11.5
Delivery pipe installation bolt
1.9 - 2.4
18.6 - 23.5
13.7 - 17.4
High pressure fuel pump installation bolt
1.3 - 1.5
12.8 - 14.7
9.4 - 10.9
High pressure fuel pipe installation nut
2.7 - 3.3
26.5 - 32.4
19.5 - 23.9
High pressure fuel pipe function block installation bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7

Special service tools
Special Service Tools

Tool Name / Number
Illustration
Description
Fuel pressure gauge
09353-24100

Used for measuring the pressure in fuel line
Fuel pressure gauge adapter
0K353-D4100

Used for connecting between high pressure fuel pump and low pressure fuel feed tube to measure the pressure in fuel line
Heated oxygen sensor socket wrench
09392-1Y100

Used for removing / installing heated oxygen sensor

※SST 09392-2H100 also can be used
Torque wrench socket
09314-3Q100 or 09314-27130(19mm)

Used for removing / installing high pressure fuel pipe
Injector combustion seal guide & sizing tool
09353-2B000

Used for installing injector combustion seal on injector

Troubleshooting
Basic Troubleshooting

Basic Troubleshooting Guide

Customer Problem Analysis Sheet

Basic Inspection Procedure

Measuring Condition of Electronic Parts' Resistance

The measured resistance at high temperature after vehicle running may be high or low. So all resistance must be measured at ambient temperature (20°C, 68°F), unless stated otherwise.

  

The measured resistance in except for ambient temperature (20°C, 68°F) is reference value.

Intermittent Problem Inspection Procedure

Sometimes the most difficult case in troubleshooting is when a problem symptom occurs but does not occur again during testing. An example would be if a problem appears only when the vehicle is cold but has not appeared when warm. In this case, the technician should thoroughly make out a "Customer Problem Analysis Sheet" and recreate (simulate) the environment and condition which occurred when the vehicle was having the issue.

1.

Clear Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC).

2.

Inspect connector connection, and check terminal for poor connections, loose wires, bent, broken or corroded pins, and then verify that the connectors are always securely fastened.

3.

Slightly shake the connector and wiring harness vertically and horizontally.

4.

Repair or replace the component that has a problem.

5.

Verify that the problem has disappeared with the road test.

● Simulating Vibration

a.

Sensors and Actuators

: Slightly vibrate sensors, actuators or relays with finger.

  

Strong vibration may break sensors, actuators or relays

b.

Connectors and Harness

: Lightly shake the connector and wiring harness vertically and then horizontally.

● Simulating Heat

a.

Heat components suspected of causing the malfunction with a hair dryer or other heat source.

  

DO NOT heat components to the point where they may be damaged.

DO NOT heat the ECM directly.

● Simulating Water Sprinkling

a.

Sprinkle water onto vehicle to simulate a rainy day or a high humidity condition.

  

DO NOT sprinkle water directly into the engine compartment or electronic components.

● Simulating Electrical Load

a.

Turn on all electrical systems to simulate excessive electrical loads (Radios, fans, lights, rear window defogger, etc.).

Connector Inspection Procedure

1.

Handling of Connector

a.

Never pull on the wiring harness when disconnecting connectors.

b.

When removing the connector with a lock, press or pull locking lever.

c.

Listen for a click when locking connectors. This sound indicates that they are securely locked.

d.

When a tester is used to check for continuity, or to measure voltage, always insert tester probe from wire harness side.

e.

Check waterproof connector terminals from the connector side. Waterproof connectors cannot be accessed from harness side.

  

Use a fine wire to prevent damage to the terminal.

Do not damage the terminal when inserting the tester lead.

2.

Checking Point for Connector

a.

While the connector is connected:

Hold the connector, check connecting condition and locking efficiency.

b.

When the connector is disconnected:

Check missed terminal, crimped terminal or broken core wire by slightly pulling the wire harness.

Visually check for rust, contamination, deformation and bend.

c.

Check terminal tightening condition:

Insert a spare male terminal into a female terminal, and then check terminal tightening conditions.

d.

Pull lightly on individual wires to ensure that each wire is secured in the terminal.

3.

Repair Method of Connector Terminal

a.

Clean the contact points using air gun and/or shop rag.

  

Never use sand paper when polishing the contact points, otherwise the contact point may be damaged.

b.

In case of abnormal contact pressure, replace the female terminal.

Wire Harness Inspection Procedure

1.

Before removing the wire harness, check the wire harness position and crimping in order to restore it correctly.

2.

Check whether the wire harness is twisted, pulled or loosened.

3.

Check whether the temperature of the wire harness is abnormally high.

4.

Check whether the wire harness is rotating, moving or vibrating against the sharp edge of a part.

5.

Check the connection between the wire harness and any installed part.

6.

If the covering of wire harness is damaged; secure, repair or replace the harness.

Electrical Circuit Inspection Procedure

● Check Open Circuit

1.

Procedures for Open Circuit

Continuity Check

Voltage Check

If an open circuit occurs (as seen in [FIG. 1]), it can be found by performing Step 2 (Continuity Check Method) or Step 3 (Voltage Check Method) as shown below.

2.

Continuity Check Method

  

When measuring for resistance, lightly shake the wire harness above and below or from side to side.

Specification (Resistance)

1Ω or less → Normal Circuit

1MΩ or Higher → Open Circuit

a.

Disconnect connectors (A), (C) and measure resistance between connector (A) and (C) as shown in [FIG. 2].

In [FIG.2.] the measured resistance of line 1 and 2 is higher than 1MΩ and below 1 Ω respectively. Specifically the open circuit is line 1 (Line 2 is normal). To find exact break point, check sub line of line 1 as described in next step.

b.

Disconnect connector (B), and measure for resistance between connector (C) and (B1) and between (B2) and (A) as shown in [FIG. 3].

In this case the measured resistance between connector (C) and (B1) is higher than 1MΩ and the open circuit is between terminal 1 of connector (C) and terminal 1 of connector (B1).

3.

Voltage Check Method

a.

With each connector still connected, measure the voltage between the chassis ground and terminal 1 of each connectors (A), (B) and (C) as shown in [FIG. 4].

The measured voltage of each connector is 5V, 5V and 0V respectively. So the open circuit is between connector (C) and (B).

● Check Short Circuit

1.

Test Method for Short to Ground Circuit

Continuity Check with Chassis Ground

If short to ground circuit occurs as shown in [FIG. 5], the broken point can be found by performing Step 2 (Continuity Check Method with Chassis Ground) as shown below.

2.

Continuity Check Method (with Chassis Ground)

  

Lightly shake the wire harness above and below, or from side to side when measuring the resistance.

Specification (Resistance)

1Ω or less → Short to Ground Circuit

1MΩ or Higher → Normal Circuit

a.

Disconnect connectors (A), (C) and measure for resistance between connector (A) and Chassis Ground as shown in [FIG. 6].

The measured resistance of line 1 and 2 in this example is below 1 Ω and higher than 1MΩ respectively. Specifically the short to ground circuit is line 1 (Line 2 is normal). To find exact broken point, check the sub line of line 1 as described in the following step.

b.

Disconnect connector (B), and measure the resistance between connector (A) and chassis ground, and between (B1) and chassis ground as shown in [FIG. 7].

The measured resistance between connector (B1) and chassis ground is 1Ω or less. The short to ground circuit is between terminal 1 of connector (C) and terminal 1 of connector (B1).

● Testing For Voltage Drop

This test checks for voltage drop along a wire, or through a connection orswitch.

A.

Connect the positive lead of a voltmeter to the end of the wire (or to the side of the connector or switch) closest to the battery.

B.

Connect the negative lead to the other end of the wire. (or the other side of the connector or switch)

C.

Operate the circuit.

D.

The voltmeter will show the difference in voltage between the two points. A difference, or drop of more than 0.1 volts (50mV in 5V circuits), may indicate a problem. Check the circuit for loose or dirty connections.

Symptom Troubleshooting Guide Chart

Main symptom
Diagnostic procedure
Also check for
Unable to start
(Engine does not turn over)
1)

Test the battery.

(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Battery")

2)

Test the starter.

(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Starter")

3)

Inhibitor switch (A/T) or clutch start switch (M/T)


Unable to start
(Incomplete combustion)
1)

Test the battery.

(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Battery")

2)

Check the fuel pressure

(Refer to Fuel Delivery System - "Fuel Pressure Test")

3)

Check the ignition circuit.

(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Ignition System")

4)

Troubleshooting the immobilizer system.

(In case of immobilizer lamp flashing)

DTC

Low compression

Intake air leaks

Slipped or broken timing belt

Contaminated fuel

Difficult to start
1)

Test the battery.

(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Battery")

2)

Check the fuel pressure

(Refer to Fuel Delivery System - "Fuel Pressure Test")

3)

Check the ECT sensor and circuit (Check DTC)

4)

Check the ignition circuit.

(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Ignition System")

DTC

Low compression

Intake air leaks

Contaminated fuel

Weak ignition spark

Poor idling
(Rough, unstable or incorrect Idle)
1)

Check the fuel pressure.

(Refer to Fuel Delivery System - "Fuel Pressure Test")

2)

Check the Injector.

(Refer to Engine Control System - "Injector")

3)

Check the long term fuel trim and short term fuel trim

(Refer to CUSTOMER DATASTREAM)

4)

Check the idle speed control circuit (Check DTC)

5)

Inspect and test the Throttle Body

6)

Check the ECT sensor and circuit (Check DTC)

DTC

Low compression

Intake air leaks

Contaminated fuel

Weak ignition spark

Engine stall
1)

Test the battery.

(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Battery")

2)

Check the fuel pressure.

(Refer to Fuel Delivery System - "Fuel Pressure Test")

3)

Check the idle speed control circuit (Check DTC)

4)

Check the ignition circuit.

(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Ignition System")

5)

Check the CKPS Circuit (Check DTC)

DTC

Intake air leaks

Contaminated fuel

Weak ignition spark

Poor driving
(Surge)
1)

Check the fuel pressure.

(Refer to Fuel Delivery System - "Fuel Pressure Test")

2)

Inspect and test Throttle Body

3)

Check the ignition circuit.

(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Ignition System")

4)

Check the ECT Sensor and Circuit (Check DTC)

5)

Test the exhaust system for a possible restriction.

(Refer to Engine Mechanical System - "Exhaust Manifold")

6)

Check the long term fuel trim and short term fuel trim

(Refer to CUSTOMER DATASTREAM)

DTC

Low compression

Intake air leaks

Contaminated fuel

Weak ignition spark

Knocking
1)

Check the fuel pressure.

(Refer to Fuel Delivery System - "Fuel Pressure Test")

2)

Inspect the engine coolant.

(Refer to Engine Mechanical System - "Radiator")

3)

Inspect the radiator and the electric cooling fan.

(Refer to Engine Mechanical System - "Radiator")

4)

Check the spark plugs.

(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Ignition System")

DTC

Contaminated fuel

Poor fuel economy
1)

Check customer's driving habitsIs

· A/C on full time or the defroster mode on?

· Are tires at correct pressure?

· Is excessively heavy load being carried?

· Is acceleration too much, too often?

2)

Check the fuel pressure.

(Refer to Fuel Delivery System - "Fuel Pressure Test")

3)

Check the injector.

(Refer to Engine Control System - "Injector")

4)

Test the exhaust system for a possible restriction

5)

Check the ECT sensor and circuit

DTC

Low compression

Intake air leaks

Contaminated fuel

Weak ignition spark

Hard to refuel
(Overflow during refueling)
1)

Inspect the fuel filler hose/pipe

· Pinched, kinked or blocked?

· Filler hose is torn

2)

Inspect the fuel tank vapor vent hose between the EVAP. canister and air filter

3)

Check the EVAP. canister

Malfunctioning gas station filling nozzle (If this problem occurs at a specific gas station during refueling)


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Engine Control System
Components and components location Components Location 1. Engine Control Module (ECM) 2. Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor (MAPS) 3. Intake Air Temperature Sensor ...

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